Cruiser Tank, Grizzly Mk I

Cruiser Tank, Grizzly Mk I


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Cruiser Tank, Grizzly Mk I

The Cruiser Tank, Grizzly Mk I, was the designation given to the Medium Tank M4A1/ Sherman II, when produced in Canada.

In 1941 Canada developed the Ram, a tank based on the Medium Tank M3, but with a new hull and carrying its main gun in a turret. A handful of Ram Mk Is were completed, armed with a 2-pounder gun, followed by a larger production run of the Ram Mk II, which carried the 6-pounder gun. In all 1,899 Rams were built at the Montreal Locomotive Works between 1942 and the summer of 1943, and were used to train Canadian armoured units.

In September 1942 work began on adapting the M4 Sherman for production in Canada, to replace the Ram Mk II. The cast-hulled M4A1 was chosen as the model to be produced, as the Grizzly Mk I. The Grizzly would be identical to the M4A1 other than the use of a British Number 19 radio, British stowage arrangements (including a storage box on the back of the turret bustle) and the use of a 2in smoke mortar in the turret.

Production of the Grizzly began in August 1943. Between then and December 1943 a total of 188 were completed, but production then ended because more than enough Shermans were available for Canadian use.

Most of the Grizzlies were used with training units in Canada, although some did make it to Britain.


Cruiser Tank Mk I (A9)

Authored By: Staff Writer | Last Edited: 03/19/2019 | Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com | The following text is exclusive to this site.

By its given "mark", the Tank, Cruiser, Mk I (A9) was the first in a long series of "cruiser" tanks for the British Army and Commonwealth Forces. Cruiser tanks emerged from British interwar doctrine that called upon two types of tanks - cruiser tanks and infantry tanks - to work in conjunction with one another to produce a "one-two" combat punch. The infantry tanks were to be of heavier design and intended to break through enemy lines and support infantry actions. The cruiser tanks would then be sent in to exploit the gaps created and attack enemy positions from the more vulnerable flanks or rear. Throughout World War 2, the British would create an entire lineage "cruiser" tanks as well as a stable of infantry tanks - the heavy Churchill perhaps being the most famous of the latter group.

The British concern of Vickers-Armstrongs Ltd, led by Sir John Carden, began work on a new medium-class fighting tank under the program model designation of "A9". It was a conventional approach by tank design standards of the time, complete with thin track systems, a rear-mounted engine (based on an automobile breed), cannon armament further backed by defensive machine guns and a traversing turret. One key feature of the layout was its use of two smaller turrets to house machine guns - the multi-turret design approach proving quite popular in other interwar designs prior, though ultimately proving to be of dubious tactical value in the field. Much was learned during the development of previous British tank endeavors and these qualities were collected and implemented throughout the Vickers proposal. With the deteriorating situation in Europe, there was much attention now being given to strengthening the firepower of the British military.

The A9 - known formally as the "Cruiser Tank Mk I" - became the first British-designed tank to sport its main armament in a centrally positioned traversing turret. This allowed the tanker crew unfettered firing arcs from within the vehicle without having to face the entire tank in the direction of the enemy. The cannon armament utilized the then-effective British QF 2-pdr main gun able to defeat much of the available armor of the time. The A9 was ultimately a promising venture but it did hold key inherent limitations in her design that were to keep her from achieving later battlefield successes.

The 12-ton Mark tank sported conventional track systems featuring six road wheels to a track side. Of note were that the first and last road wheels were larger in diameter than the four interior pairs. The drive sprocket was mounted to the rear of the design with the track idler at the front. Three track return rollers were fitted across the top of the track span to facilitate movement. Suspension was through triple sprung bogies to allow for adequate cross-country capability. The glacis plate was well-sloped though shallow in its implementation. The driver sat at the extreme front of the hull with vision provided through a hinged, slotted panel emerging from a protruding emplacement. Two small turrets straddled this position and mounted single machine guns. Aft of the turrets was a short hull superstructure making up the fighting compartment. Fitted to the superstructure roof was the turret housing the main armament and another machine gun for anti-infantry defense. Stowage boxes were added to the sides of the vehicle. The engine was installed within a compartment at the rear. A standard operating crew for the Mark I included a driver, seated in the front center hull, the tank commander, the gunner, an ammunition handler and two machine gunners - these two personnel seated to either side of the driver and all shared the single fighting compartment of the hull. Armor protection measured just 6mm to 14mm in thickness across the vehicle's various facings.

The vehicle was armed with the 40mm (QF 2-pdr) which - though ample for early 1930s engagements - was wholly outclassed by mid-war - especially concerning the growth of German armor during the time. Nonetheless, the cannon was fitted to a traversing turret and operated by a dedicated gun layer. 100 projectiles of 40mm ammunition could be carried aboard. A coaxially-mounted .303 caliber Vickers machine gun was added next to the main gun and also operated by the gunner. Unique to the design of the Mark I tank was its use of the two additional .303 Vickers machine gun mounts - these in the forward hull to either side of the driver position in their own - albeit smaller scale - turret emplacements. As these positions were standard fixtures on the Mark I design, the tank required two dedicated machine gunners as part of the standard operating crew (in comparison, other standard combat tanks of the war required between three and five personnel). Some 3,000 rounds of .303 ammunition were carried to cover supply to all three machine guns.

The Mark I tank was powered by a single AEC 179 series 6-cylinder gasoline engine developing 150 horsepower. The engine was originally based on a standard commercially available Rolls-Royce car engine breed though this proved lacking for the design's weight and expected capabilities. The AEC was another commercially-available engine though it was of heavier-minded design origins and used to power British busses in the civilian market. Its rear-set placement also kept it at the more vulnerable rear of the tank, though far from the front of the vehicle, the area expected to take the brunt of enemy fire. Top road speeds in ideal conditions was up to 25 miles per hour with an operational range of approximately 150 miles.

Production of Mark I cruiser tanks began in 1936 and spanned into 1941 to which only 125 total vehicles were ultimately produced - all by Vickers. By this time, the British Expeditionary Force was in all-out war within a coalition of Allies in Europe against the might of the German Army. The Mark 1 design was further evolved to become the Mark I CS - a "close-support" tracked vehicle mounting a large-caliber 94mm L15 howitzer while retaining the original's running gear, engine and hull. Both Mark I modelswere used in early combat actions until, inevitably outmoded on the battlefield by evolving German armor.

As with most light-minded tracked armored vehicles used early in the war, the Mark I initially found successes, proving agile and relatively quick while her main gun armament was able to deal effectively with German and Italian armor offerings. The Mark I saw definitive combat actions at the French and Greek fronts in the Allied attempt to stem the Axis advance. Expanded combat actions also included appearances in the North African desert campaign where it proved effective enough against the early Panzer II light and Panzer III and Panzer IV medium tanks under the command of fabled German General Erwin Rommel and his Afrika Corps. These actions also proved the value and excellent design nature of the British 40mm QF 2-pdr guns as an anti-tank/anti-armor weapon.

However, the situation changed with the advent of the better-armored Panzer IVs beginning to debut in and, as such, the Mark I days were officially numbered. The Mark I, herself, lacked much in the way of inherent armor protection against German guns and her many vertical facings did little to deflect incoming projectiles. Light armor lacked against larger-caliber shaped charges and the vertical facings of the main turret, the driver's compartment and machine gun turrets acted as "shot traps" for incoming enemy projectiles landing direct hits.

The British attempted to shore up some of the issues of their Mk Is by developing the "Cruiser Tank Mk II". The type fielded heavier armor protection through bolted-on panels atop the Mk I's existing armor facings in an effort to increase the tank's survivability. The new tank retained the turreted 40mm main gun armament but did away with the dual machine turrets in the front hull. Instead, a single .303 Vickers/BESA machine gun was offset to the right-hand side. Power was again through an AEC 6-cylinder gasoline engine. The added armor, however, did much to degrade road performance - down to 16 miles per hour from the original's 25. Needless to say, the Mark II did not fare particularly well in combat at this point in the war.

The Mark I itself was dropped from frontline British Army use as soon as 1941. Some of her underlying components were, however, still utilized in the upcoming Valentine Infantry Tank beginning service in 1940 so all was not lost.


Cruiser Tank, Grizzly Mk I - History


Tank Cruiser MK. I, code A9 was the first ever built cruiser tank in the United Kingdom. But while the A9 was still a prototype type in 1934, the British War Office had requested the production firm, the Vickers Armstrong Limited, to develop a more heavily armoured vehicle for better infantry support role.

On September 1937, a soft steel prototype Tank Cruiser MK. II, code A10 was produced. The armour thickness has been increased from 35/64 inch (14mm) in the A9 to 15/16 inch (24mm). To reduce weight, the two front single man machine guns turrets were removed. The increase in protection was achieved by bolting extra armour plate to the exterior of the hull and turret. This is the first practice of the application of additional steel plate design ever in British Tank.

Tank Cruiser MK. II according to their own weaponry can be sub-divided into three variants.
1. Tank Cruiser MK. II (A10 MK. I) Equipped with a QF 2-pounder cannon and two 0.33-inch Vickers water-cooled machine guns.
2. Tank Cruiser MK. IIA (A10 MK. IA) Equipped with a QF 2-pounder cannon and two BESA air-cooled machine gun.
3. Tank Cruiser MK. IIA CS (A10 MK. IA CS) The CS (Close Support) version had a 3.7 inches (94 mm) howitzer in the turret assigned for infantry support role.
The production run A10 tank has turret, engine and suspension identical to A9, but the thickness of bolt plates has been increased to 1 and 3/16 inch (30 mm) and weighs has been increased to 14.3 tonnes. The maximum speed on road, however, drops to 16 mph, while off road only 8mph. As a result, the A10 tank is too slow to perform the cruiser tank duty such as forays deep into enemy territory. This shortcoming self-explain although the A10 tank saw combat in most of the early battles, such as France, North Africa and Greece, the final production number was only 175 and phased out very quickly when the new type of cruiser tank enter into service.

Option 3 – A10 Mk.IA ‘Edinburgh’, HQ Squadron 2nd Royal Tank Rgt 7th Armoured Brigade 7th Armoured Division, Libya, 1940-41

Cruiser Tank, Grizzly Mk I - History

High on my list of favourite fun machines I have had the privilege to drive is a Caterpillar D9 bulldozer – all ninety something tons of it. It was an “I feel the earth move under my feet…” experience and I wanted to become a bulldozer driver – something I’ve never been completely cured of. However, my excessive delight in driving the D9 bulldozer may be because I’ve never had the opportunity to drive a tank.

Tanks do not come up for sale every day, but one is coming up for sale on 14th October 2015. So if you think that bidding on a rare collectible Ferrari would be just so “passé” then you might be interested in bidding on something that no-one else on the block has, a Sherman M4A1 Grizzly I Cruiser tank.

This Sherman Grizzly is sweetly named “Akilla” and in truth keeping its petrol/gas tank full might prove to be “a killer” of your bank account.

The Grizzly I Cruiser was a modification of the US built Sherman tank but made at the Montreal Locomotive Works in Canada. As Canada entered the Second World War it was not in a position to design and manufacture its own tanks and so it modified the US Sherman with some Canadian improvements and began building them.

One of the major improvements made by the Canadians at the Montreal Locomotive Works was the use of Canadian Dry Pin tracks. (Picture courtesy of panzerserra.blogspot.com).

One of the most significant improvements made by Montreal Locomotive Works was the use of Canadian Dry Pin (CDP) tracks. These did not require the use of rubber and rubber was in short supply because of the Japanese successes in South East Asia.

The Canadian Grizzly I also featured additional side armour. (Picture courtesy of panzerserra.blogspot.com).

The CDP track was also a more simple and lighter design in tune with the army’s “KISS” principle (i.e. Keep It Simple Stupid).

Although the Canadian Grizzly I was an improvement over the original US made Sherman very few were made. The example coming up for sale is listed as the first of only 188 ever made.

Production line at Montreal Locomotive works showing the Grizzly I in the background and the modification of the Grizzly I, the Sexton self propelled gun Mark II in the foreground. (Picture courtesy of panzerserra.blogspot.com.au)

Because the Americans were more than able to turn out enough Sherman tanks for everybody it was decided to cease production of the Grizzly I Cruisers after only 188 had been made, and modify the design to create the Sexton Self Propelled Gun Mark II, as these were in great need. The Sexton was fitted with the British Commonwealth QF 25 Pounder Gun.

Differences between the US Sherman and the Canadian Grizzly are subtle but significant. (Picture courtesy of panzerserra.blogspot.com.au)

After the war some of the Grizzly I Cruisers and Sexton Self Propelled Guns were sold to Portugal as a part of a NATO assistance program and were in active service until the 1980’s.

Grizzly I Cruiser in service with the Portugese Army. (Picture courtesy of panzerserra.blogspot.com.au)

So this first off the production line Grizzly I Cruiser is a collector’s item that will not only grace any motor vehicle collection but it will almost certainly prove to be somewhat cheaper than a rare collectible Ferrari, somewhat slower as top speed is around 25mph, but enormous fun for the driver and for the four scurvy mates he/she will need to crew the Grizzly fully, with the additional benefit that it will go places no Ferrari could ever dream of going. How could you not want it?

If you are interested in this 1943 Grizzly I Cruiser you will find the sale page if you click here.

Just remember you will need a liberal supply of affordable petrol/gasoline to keep that big thirsty radial engine satiated when you drive it, and you will want to drive it!

Jon Branch is the founder and senior editor of Revivaler and has written a significant number of articles for various publications including official Buying Guides for eBay, classic car articles for Hagerty, magazine articles for both the Australian Shooters Journal and the Australian Shooter, and he’s a long time contributor to Silodrome.

Jon has done radio, television, magazine and newspaper interviews on various issues, and has traveled extensively, having lived in Britain, Australia, China and Hong Kong. His travels have taken him to Indonesia, Israel, Italy, Japan and a number of other countries. He has studied the Japanese sword arts and has a long history of involvement in the shooting sports, which has included authoring submissions to government on various firearms related issues and assisting in the design and establishment of shooting ranges.


Cruiser Mk III

Cruiser Mk III (službeno eng. Cruiser Tank Mark III) je bio britanski brzi tenk projektiran između dva svjetska rata.

Cruiser Tank Mark III (A13)
Svojstva
Posada4
Dužina6.02 m
Širina2.54 m
Visina2.59 m
Težina14 tona
Oklop i naoružanje
Oklop14 mm
Osnovno naoružanje40 mm top
Sekundarno naoružanjeVickers mitraljez
Pokretljivost
PogonNuffield Liberty V12 benzinski
340 KS
Brzina na cesti48 km/h
Domet145 km

Cruiser Mk III je baziran na američkom podvozju zvanom "Christie", po čijoj su osnovi pod licencom napravljeni i sovjetski BT tenkovi. Britanski komadanti su bili impresionirani brzinom i manevarskim sposobnostima sovjetskih BT tenkova, pa su stoga odlučili i sami iskoristit isto podvozje. Razvoj je započeo u novembru 1936. nakon što je iz SAD-a isporučen primjerak Christie tenka, a dvije godine nakon toga je pokrenuta serijska proizvodnja. Prednost novog podvozja u odnosu na prijašnja britanska su bili noseći kotači velikog promjera, koji su bili stavljeni na ljuljajuće opruge s kojima je tenk mogao postići veće brzine i imati bolje terenske mogućnosti. Prvi tenk je isporučen početkom 1939. godine. Samo podvozje se pokazalo vrlo dobrim te je korišteno na svim kasnijim britanskim brzim tenkovima. [1]

Cruiser Mk III je imao jako dobar omjer težine i snage kao i veliku maksimalnu brzinu od 48 km/h. Bio je u uporabi na bojištu u Francuskoj 1940. i u sjevernoj Africi 1940. - 1941. godine, ali zbog pretankog oklopa nije se mogao nositi sa puno bolje oklopljenim i naoružanim njemačkim suparnicima.


Photo: “Canadian Tank Cruiser, Ram Mark II.”

Canada did use the Sherman but it had its hull up-armored and with special pin/tracks. The Sherman in its first iteration was considered by Canada a cruiser tank and renamed it the "Grizzly Mk I". It was eventually up-gunned with the 17 pdr . gun like the British Firefly ( for training but none saw action).

Grizzly I cruiser tank (Canadian M4A1 Sherman) - case report

Sgt_IronHide #2 Posted Apr 26 2018 - 11:07

Thunder_Storm_713 #3 Posted Apr 26 2018 - 12:23

FrozenKemp #4 Posted Apr 26 2018 - 12:35

I really do wish they'd . for instance, give an option to exchange the Ram for a UK-tree one. The problem is that the Ram was released for WoT before the British tanks were. Good point about the machinegun turret in the model.

I don't actually think there was anything unusual about the Grizzly armour. Those extra patches match what was applied to Shermans used in Europe. But, fun fact: many "Sherman" tanks on display across the US are Grizzlies, because not that many Shermans were shipped back from Europe to the US.

Moogleslam #5 Posted Apr 26 2018 - 14:05

The_Chieftain #6 Posted Apr 26 2018 - 19:41

Moon111 #7 Posted Apr 26 2018 - 20:02

FrozenKemp #8 Posted Apr 26 2018 - 20:19

moon111, on Apr 26 2018 - 14:02, said:

If you have gold to spare for more emblems, WG put in a historical Canadian WW2 emblem with a maple leaf. I did put one on my Ram.

Iron_Soul_Stealer #9 Posted Apr 26 2018 - 20:42

FrozenKemp, on Apr 26 2018 - 14:19, said:

If you have gold to spare for more emblems, WG put in a historical Canadian WW2 emblem with a maple leaf. I did put one on my Ram.

Nice touch, Wargaming! . I never noticed that new emblem, yet.

I'd consider using that one, too. but I don't have a Ram.

Bockscar43 #10 Posted Apr 26 2018 - 20:48

Iron_Soul_Stealer #11 Posted Apr 26 2018 - 20:51

bockscar43, on Apr 26 2018 - 14:48, said:

That's an even better idea! I like that..

EddyMcChuckleNuggets #12 Posted Apr 27 2018 - 00:28

The_Chieftain, on Apr 26 2018 - 09:41, said:

If I recall correctly, both Sextons are in the British line.

Edited by EddyMcChuckleNuggets, Apr 27 2018 - 00:29.

Omega_Weapon #13 Posted Apr 27 2018 - 08:16

moogleslam, on Apr 26 2018 - 08:05, said:

​Don't think we need a full Canadian tree. I'd be quite happy to have some Canadian tanks on the British tech tree.

Dain_Ironfoot_ #14 Posted Apr 27 2018 - 12:52

The_Chieftain, on Apr 26 2018 - 18:41, said:

Would it work for them to release the same tanks for an additional nation so, in some cases, you might be able to choose which nation you want the tank to be? For example, the Rudy could also be released as part of the Polish nation.

Omega_Weapon #15 Posted Apr 29 2018 - 03:09

Dain_Ironfoot_, on Apr 27 2018 - 06:52, said:

Would it work for them to release the same tanks for an additional nation so, in some cases, you might be able to choose which nation you want the tank to be? For example, the Rudy could also be released as part of the Polish nation.

​The Rudy is a tank from a Polish TV show and the crew all have Polish names. It should be removed from the Russian national line and moved over to the Polish line as soon as the Polish tech tree is introduced into the game. Its not like there is a shortage of Premium Russian tanks in the game. People who still prefer to keep a Russian medium instead can get some other T-34 with a Russian crew as a replacement, but Rudy deserves to be with the rest of the Polish tanks.

Shapeshifter #16 Posted May 01 2018 - 00:00

Capitaine_Triquet, on Apr 26 2018 - 04:43, said:

There is not much to say about Canadian tanks except for two: the Ram II and the M4 Grizzly.

WOT has put the Ram II in the American branch when Canada was, in fact, was using British tanks. Since Canada just had its self-rule from Britain in 1934 it was still much a vassal in the British army corp as it was the 3rd British 1st Canadian army. The Ram II should be in the British line if you tag along history. The other problem with the Ram is that there is a confusion between the Ram Mk I and the Ram Mk II. WOT calls the Ram II what is, in fact, a Ram Mk I training vehicle not meant for combat. The Ram Mk II does not have a gunner turret on the front and the side doors do not exist in the casting of the upper portion of the hull.


World War Photos

A13 assembly line at LMS 1940 A13 T15218 during training 1940 Destoyed A13 Mk I (Cruiser Mk III) France 1940 A13 T15218 1940 2
Burning A13 North Africa Abandoned A13 Mk II France 1940 2 A13 tanks at assembly line Destoyed Cruiser Mk IV, A13 Mk II Western Desert
Captured A13 of 2nd Armoured Division, Africa 1941 Factory fresh A13 tanks Captured by Italian forces tank A13 near Tobruk Captured A13 Mk I T4405 1940
A13 T15218 3 Factory fresh A13 German A13 code 144 Abandoned A13 Mk IIA T9163, Calais 1940
Abandoned A13 Mk I from HQ of the Squadron B, 3rd RTR, 1st Armoured Division. Calais 1940 A13 tank loaded on an American White 920 18 ton 6ࡪ tank transporter, 1942 A13 Mk IIA tanks on exercise in Cyprus 1942 Abandoned A13 France 1940
Cruiser tank Mk IV on the back of a Scammell tank transporter – Le Neubourg 9 June 1940 A13 Cruiser tank Mk IV at Huppy France May 1940 Abandoned British Cruiser Tank A13 Mk II Greece 1941 German A13 of Panzer Abteilung 100 (Flamm)
knocked-out A13 Cruiser tank Mk IV road between Huppy and St Maxent May 1940 Cruiser tank Mk IV – May 1940 Blangy France A13 Cruiser tank Mk IVA Egypt 1 November 1940 Cruiser Tank Mark III A13 Mk I
Cruiser Tank Mark IV A13 Greece 1941 British Cruiser Tank A13 Mk II Kreuzer Panzerkampfwagen Mk IV 744(e) A13 Beute Panzer Abandoned A13 Mk II Cruiser Tank
A13 Mk IIa Tank T15228 Africa Abandoned A13 Mk IIa Tank T9165 Destroyed A13 Tank North Africa Tank A13 Mk II of 1st Armoured Division, front view
A13 Mk I 56A of British 1st Armoured Division Cruiser Tank Mark IV A13 Mk II – North Africa. Italian tanks in the background. British Cruiser Tank A13 Mk II Africa British Cruiser Tank A13 Mk II in Tobruk
Cruiser tank A13 Mk I of the British 1st Armoured Division, 1940 Dunkirk Cruiser Mark IV british cruiser tank Cruiser tank Mk IV A13 Mk II Abandoned Cruiser Mk IV A13 Mk II
A13 cruiser tank Mk IV in German service Abandoned Cruiser tank Mk III A13 Mk I German soldier atop a Cruiser tank Mk IV A13 Mk II A13 Mk II – Cruiser Tank Mk IV, France
Burned out A13 Mk I (Cruiser tank Mk III) France 1940 A13 tanks rail transport France 1940 Cruiser tank Mk IV A13 Mk II photo A13 Mk II tank France 1940
A13 Mk II tank destroyed A13 Mk II cruiser tank Mk IV and wehrmacht soldiers Cruiser tank A13 Mk II German A13 tank
German A13 Mk II cruiser tank photo German Kreuzer Panzerkampfwagen Mk.IV 744(e) A13 A13 Mk II cruiser tank 15 German A13 Mk II cruiser tank – rear view
German A13 Mk II cruiser tank 2 A13 cruiser tank A13 Mk II cruiser tank turret – DAK German tank A13 Mk II (Cruiser Tank Mk IV) 02
A13 Mk I cruiser tank A13 Mk II cruiser tank German A13 Mk II cruiser tank A13 Mk II cruiser tank 44
A13 cruiser tank A13 Mk II cruiser tank A13 cruiser tank A group of German soldiers inspect a British cruiser tank A13 Mk II 3
A13 Mk II cruiser tank A13 cruiser tank photo A13 cruiser tank A13 Mk II 142 – tank in german service. Tank belonged to the Panzer-Abteilung (Fl) 100 (attached to 18. Panzer-Division (Wehrmacht))
German tank A13 Mk II (Cruiser Tank Mk IV) 12a German tanks A13 Mk II (Cruiser Tank Mk IV) German tank A13 Mk II (Cruiser Tank Mk IV) 12 German tank A13 Mk II (Cruiser Tank Mk IV) 11
German tank A13 Mk II (Cruiser Tank Mk IV) German A13 Mk II #141. Tank belonged to the Panzer-Abteilung (Fl) 100 (attached to 18. Panzer-Division (Wehrmacht)) A13 MK ii cruiser tank German tank A13 Mk II (Cruiser Tank Mk IV) with crew
A13 cruiser tank captured
  • Panzer Tracts 19-2: Beute-Panzerkampfwagen: British, American, Russian and Italian Tanks Captured from 1940 to 1945 – Thomas L Jentz, Werner Regenberg
  • British and American Tanks of World War Two: The Complete Illustrated History of British, American and Commonwealth Tanks, 1939-45 – Peter Chamberlain, Chris Ellis
  • The Great Tank Scandal: British Armour in the Second World War Part 1 – David Fletcher
  • B. T. White – British Tank Markings and Names, Squadron Specials series No. 6021
  • British Tanks: The Second World War – Images of War, Pen and Sword Military 2012
  • David Fletcher – British Tanks of WWII (1): France & Belgium 1944, Concord Armour at War 7027
  • Bryan Perrett – British Tanks in North Africa 1940-42, Osprey
  • B.T. White – British Tanks 1915-1945
  • British North Africa – Focus On Armour Camouflage & Markings 2
  • Norm E. Harms, Steve Clayton, Uwe Feist – British Armour in Action, Squadron/Signal Publications
  • British Cruiser Tanks of World War 2 – The War Archives, Kelsey Publishing 2014
  • Richard Doherty – British Armoured Divisions and Their Commanders, 1939-1945

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Cruiser Mk I

Sir John Carden je projektirao tenk 1934., testiranja su počela u travnju 1936., a serijska proizvodnja u kolovozu 1937. godine. Ukupno je izgrađeno 125 tenkova koji su bili u službi od 1938. do 1941. godine. Težina tenka je bila relativno mala, pa je ugrađen komercijalni benzinski motor snage 150 KS namijenjen ugradnji u autobuse. Cruiser Mk I je mogao postići brzinu od 40 km/h. Bio je naoružan sa glavnim topom kalibra 40 mm i tri 7,7 mm strojnice od kojih je jedna bila koaksijalna, a druge dvije montirane u dvije zasebne kupole. U Cruiser Mk I je prvi tenk u kojeg je ugrađen hidraulični pogon za kupolu. [1] [2]

Iskustva iz Francuske su pokazala da je tenk imao pretanak oklop, a brzina je bila premala za obavljanje zadaća namijenjenih ovoj vrsti tenka. U sjevernoj Africi uspješno se nosio sa talijanskim tenkovima, ali je bio prespor i preslabo oklopljen za borbu protiv njemačkih tenkova. [1]

Nije proizveden u mnogo primjeraka zbog boljeg i pouzdanijeg tenka Cruiser Mk IV, ali podvozje i mnogo mehaničkih rješenja su poslužili kao osnova vrlo uspješnog pješadijskog tenka Valentine. [2]


5 Canadian-made military vehicles of the Second World War

The first tank designed and built in Canada, the Tank, Cruiser, Ram was created to help solve the insufficient production of tanks in the United Kingdom.

The Ram was based on the American Medium Tank M3 rather than a British tank. This allowed for a more consistent supply of imported parts, which proved critical in the production of the vehicle. Canadian engineers, inexperienced with tank production, were also reliant on the engineering skills of their more experienced American allies.

More than 2,000 Rams were produced by Montreal Locomotive Works (MLW), but the standardization of the Sherman tank resulted in the Ram never being used outside of training exercises.

This Canadian-built version of the M4A1 Sherman was unique compared to its American variant in three major ways. It had thicker armour, a longer range, and utilized Canadian Dry Pin tracks, a system that did not require rubber, a scarce resource at the time.

MLW produced 188 Grizzly I tanks before it was determined that production of the Sherman by the United States would be sufficient, allowing MLW to focus its efforts on producing other armour, such as the Sexton self-propelled artillery vehicle.

A number of Grizzly I tanks were sold to Portugal as part of the NATO Military Assistance Program before being retired in the 1980s.

Building on the design of the Ram and Grizzly, the 25pdr SP, tracked, Sexton self-propelled artillery vehicle was created to replace other British armour that struggled in the desert warfare of the North African Campaign.

The Americans were unable to produce a vehicle solely for British use so they sought Canada’s help. The Sexton weighed just under 26 tonnes and required a six man crew, consisting of a commander, driver, gunner, gun-layer, loader and wireless operator. The Sexton Mark I used the hull of the Ram tank the Sexton Mark II used the Grizzly hull.

More than 2,000 were produced during the Second World War, helping both Britain and Canada provide indirect supporting fire on the battlefield. Like the Grizzly, the remaining Sextons were sold to Portugal after the war and remained in service until the 1980s.

The Otter Light Reconnaissance Car was an armoured car produced for Commonwealth nations by General Motors Canada in Oshawa, Ont.

The Otter was based on the Chevrolet C15 Canadian Military Pattern truck and used many standard GM components. The vehicle had a Boys anti-tank rifle mounted on the hull and a Bren light machine gun in an open-topped turret.

During the Second World War, 1,761 Otters were produced, and were used by Canadian, British and South African units. After the war, the vehicle was used in the Indonesian Revolution by the Dutch and Jordanian armies.

Canadian Military Pattern (CMP) Truck

Before the Second World War, the U.K. and Canada both recognized the growing threat of the Nazi Party in Germany. This led to an agreement that in any future conflict, Canadian-manufactured equipment would be compatible with British standards and specifications, allowing for the nations to more easily integrate their forces.

After the Dunkirk evacuation in 1940, Britain was forced to abandon the majority of its military vehicles in France, sparking the need for Canada to produce vehicles en masse to make up for the losses.

More than a half-million CMP trucks were produced during the war, mainly by General Motors Canada and the Ford Motor Company of Canada, a number that exceeded the total military truck production of Nazi Germany.

In Britain’s official History of the Second World War, Canada’s large-scale production of CMP trucks is described as the country’s greatest contribution to the eventual Allied victory.


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