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Battle of Babain, 18 March 1167
The battle of Babain (18 March 1167) was an inconclusive battle during Nur ad-Din's second invasion of Egypt that is best know for being Saladin's first recorded major battle.
In 1164 Nur ad-Din, then ruler of much of Syria, had sent an army to Egypt to restore the vizier Shawar. At the time Egypt was ruled by the Shi'a Fatimid caliphs, while Nur ad-Din was loyal to the Sunni caliphs of Baghdad, but at least as the start of the 1164 campaign he was willing to work within the Fatimid system. A Syria army, commanded by Saladin's uncle Shirkuh, entered Egypt and restored Shawar. The vizier then refused to pay the tribute he had promised and called on King Amalric of Jerusalem for aid. Shirkuh was besieged in Bilbais, but events elsewhere convinced Amalric to accept a peaceful end to the siege. Both the Franks and the Syrians returned home and Shawar remained in power in Egypt.
Shirkuh spent the next few years attempting to convince Nur ad-Din to overthrow the Fatimids. Eventually Nur ad-Din was convinced and in 1167 Shirkuh (accompanied by Saladin) was given a new army and sent into Egypt, this time with the sole mission of overthrowing the Fatimids. The Syrian army crossed Sinai on a route designed to take them away from the Franks, but they did run into a sandstorm which inflicted some casualties.
Once again King Amalric and the Franks of Jerusalem came to the aid of Shawar. Shirkuh was probably outnumbered, and he responded by crossing to the west bank of the Nile, and camping at Giza, opposite Cairo. The campaign then stalled as both sides decided if it was worth fighting, but eventually the Franks and the Egyptians crossed to the west bank of the Nile. Shirkuh retreated south, eventually reaching Babain, where he finally decided to stand and fight.
Shirkuh came up with a simple plan to negate the main strength of the Crusader army, their heavy cavalry charge. He positioned Saladin in the centre of the line, with orders to carry out a feigned retreat when the Crusaders charged. The Franks would follow and would be pulled out of the battle.
The plan worked. Amalric charged the Syrian centre and Saladin pulled back. The Franks followed, leaving Shirkuh to deal with the rest of the Egyptian army. By the time Amalric returned the situation was apparently somewhat confused, with small fights taking place in a number of valleys on the edge of the desert. Amalric was able to withdraw having lost around 100 men.
The sources generally describe this as a victory for Shirkuh. He had won control of the battlefield, but he didn’t feel strong enough to risk an attack on Cairo, so instead he moved to Alexandria, where the city had rebelled against the Fatimids. Amalric and the Egyptians followed, and Saladin was soon besieged in Alexandria, in what became his first major command.
Major Battles Of The Crusades
The Ottomans defeating a multinational Crusader Army during the 1396 Battle of Nicopolis in modern Bulgaria.
The battles of the Crusades were part of a series of religious wars that were initiated by the Roman Catholic Pope between the 11 th and the 15 th Centuries. The wars were against the external and internal enemies of the Christian with an indulgence promised to those who were bold enough to take part in the war. The Crusade wars were fought for several reasons including recapturing the Christian territories, resolving conflicts among rival groups within the Roman Catholic, capturing Jerusalem, defending Christians in the non-Christian territories, and combating heresy and paganism. The battle of the crusade was mainly between the Muslims and Christians who fought all over the Holy Land and the Mediterranean for control and dominance. Some of the most significant battles of the Crusades are looked at below.
Battle of Aintab
The Battle of Aintab was fought in August of 1150, and was led by the King of Jerusalem, King Baldwin III, to repel the attacks by Nur ad-din Zangi of Aleppo. During the fight, several Latin Christians who were living in the County of Edessa were evacuated as a part of the King’s strategy to win the war. Nur ad-din Zangi’s Turks attacked the crusaders with showers of arrows to break their formation. However, the Crusaders who were highly organized managed to protect the refugees and the baggage train and resisted the Turks’ attack. The Turks soon ran out of supplies and had to withdraw at sunset enabling the crusaders to deliver the refugees to Antiochene territories. Though the territory of the County of Edessa fell to the Turks, Baldwin the King managed to protect the pro-Latin civilians.
Battle of al-Babein
The Battle of al-Babein occurred in the Third Crusaders' Invasion of Egypt on March 18, 1167. The King of Jerusalem, Amalric I, and the Zengid army both wanted to take control of Egypt. Amalric I wanted to chase Muslims and Shirkuh out of Egypt. However, on reaching the Valley of the Nile, the Muslims turned against Amalric’s army having been weakened by the steep slopes and soft sand. Shirkuh who was commanding the Muslims managed to break the battle into smaller skirmishes with both the Turks and the Franks winning some of the skirmishes. Without any clear victor between Amalric and Shirkuh, King Amalric I failed to become the ruler of Egypt.
Battle of Adramyttium
The Battle of Adramyttium broke out on March 19, 1205, and was fought between the Latin Crusaders and the Byzantine Greek Empire of Nicaea. There are two accounts of the Battle of Adramyttium. The first account by Geoffrey de Villehardouin suggests that Henry of Flanders occupied the city of Adramyttium and used it as a base to attack Byzantines. Constantine responded by raiding the city of Adramyttium where Henry was. The battle broke out between the two camps with the Franks killing and capturing much of the Byzantine Army. The second account is by Nicetas Choniates suggested that it was Theodore Mangaphas and not Constantine who led the Byzantine Army against Henry in the Battle of Adramyttium. However, Choniates agrees that it was the Franks who won the battle killing a large number of the Byzantines Army in the process. Historians have tried to reconcile the two accounts by suggesting that there must have been two separate attempts to drive Henry out of Adramyttium, first by Constantine then Mangaphas within a short time in 1205 both of which failed.
King Amalric ordered only his mounted forces to chase Shirkuh and the Muslims out of Egypt at the beginning of the battle. Amalric chased Shirkuh’s troops up the valley of the Nile and across the river to Giza.  The chase almost worked, but the Muslims turned to fight Amalric where the cultivated ground ended and the desert began.  The steep slopes and soft sand reduced the effectiveness of the Latin army. King Amalric I’s army was weakened because he only took a handful of men with him to pursue Shirkuh. He commanded 374 armed Frankish horsemen along with the mounted archers known as Turcopoles. The Christian knights also sided with Almaric I in order to go after Shirkuh’s army. 
Shirkuh came up with a plan to draw the Franks, along with Amalric, away from the battlefield. Shirkuh’s plan was for the Latin cavalry charge to find no worthy target. Shirkuh hoped to lessen the severity of the fight. He wanted the Franks to think that all his best men were in the center surrounding him. Among those in the center line was Saladin, Shirkuh’s nephew. Saladin, under Shrikuh’s orders, was to retreat once the Franks moved closer. 
Amalric fell for Shirkuh’s plan. Amalric sent his main attack toward the center of Shirkuh’s troops. Saladin then drew Amalric and the Franks away from the battlefield. The fight broke off into smaller skirmishes. Some of the skirmishes were won by the Franks and others by the Turks. 
When Amalric returned from pursuing Saladin, he rallied his troops together. Amalric lined up his troops and marched straight through the enemy lines, fighting all enemy opposition along the way. Amalric then marched off the battlefield with his army. Neither side left with a victory. The Franks lost one hundred knights and failed to destroy Shrikuh’s army. This also cost Amalric’s chance to become the ruler of Egypt. 
By March of 1865, Lieut. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's grip on the Confederate lines around Petersburg was having its desired effect. Outnumbered and weakened by disease, desertion and shortage of food and supplies, Gen. Robert E. Lee had few options. After careful study of the Union troops in his sector of the line, Maj. Gen. John B. Gordon suggested to Lee the possibility of a successful offensive strike against Grant. In front of Gordon's men, Union-held Fort Stedman seemed the best target for a Confederate attack. It was relatively close the Rebel lines, it was lightly fortified, and a Union supply depot was directly behind it. With luck, a large force could penetrate Union defenses there and move on Grant's supply base and headquarters 10 miles away at City Point. Planned and led by Gordon, the pre-dawn assault on March 25th overpowered the garrisons of Fort Stedman and Batteries 10, 11 and 12. The Confederates were brought under a killing crossfire, and counterattacks led by Maj. Gen. John G. Parke's Ninth Corps contained the breakthrough and captured more than 1,900 of the attackers. Elsewhere, elements of the Second and Sixth Corps southwest of Petersburg assaulted and captured the Confederate picket lines in their respective fronts, which had been weakened to support the assault on Fort Stedman. The loss was a devastating blow for Lee’s army, setting up the Confederate defeat at Five Forks on April 1st and the fall of Petersburg on April 2-3rd.
- Baldwin, Marshall W. A History of The Crusades. Volume 1. (Madison, The University of Wisconsin Press, 1969), 553, 385.
- Hindley, Geoffrey. (New York, Harper & Row Publishers, Inc.), 149-159.
- Jotischky, Andrew. Crusading and the Crusader States. (Edinburgh Gate, Pearson Education Limited, 2004), 83-93.
- Smail, R.C. Crusading Warfare (1097–1193). (New York, The Cambridge University Press, 1956), 183-185.
- Tyerman, Christopher. Fighting for Christendom: Holy War and the Crusades. (New York, Oxford University Press, 2004), 149, 166.
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Aghoris are devotees of Shiva manifested as Bhairava,  and monists who seek moksha from the cycle of reincarnation or saṃsāra. This freedom is a realization of the self's identity with the absolute. Because of this monistic doctrine, the Aghoris maintain that all opposites are ultimately illusory. The purpose of embracing pollution and degradation through various customs is the realization of non-duality (advaita) through transcending social taboos, attaining what is essentially an altered state of consciousness and perceiving the illusory nature of all conventional categories.
Aghori rituals, which are performed precisely to oppose notions of purity commonplace in orthodox Hinduism, are typically macabre in nature.  Practices of Aghoris varies.  Some of them also live in cemeteries, smear cremation ashes on their bodies, use human skulls for decoration and bowls, [smoking marijuana, drinking alcohol, and meditate on top of corpses.   Although contrary to mainstream Hinduism, these practices exemplify the Aghori philosophy of criticizing commonplace social relations and fears through the use of culturally offensive acts.  Furthermore, they demonstrate the Aghoris’ acceptance of death as a necessary and natural part of the human experience.  Despite the thought behind such actions, outsiders (particularly tourists) have typically viewed the sect with suspicion and horror, with their lifestyles being described as morally damaging to the Indian youth, akin to living like animals, uncivilized compared to modern Hindu society, or outright dangerous, due to belief that the Aghori are willing to kill live humans for their rituals.  This particular claim, as of the present, has yet to be substantiated with hard evidence.
Aghoris are not to be confused with Shivnetras, who are also ardent devotees of Shiva, but do not indulge in extreme, tamasic ritual practices. Although the Aghoris enjoy close ties with the Shivnetras, the two groups are quite distinct, Shivnetras engaging in sattvic worship.
Aghoris base their beliefs on two principles common to broader Shaiva beliefs: that Shiva is perfect (having omniscience, omnipresence and omnipotence) and that Shiva is responsible for everything that occurs: all conditions, causes and effects. Consequently, everything that exists must be perfect and to deny the perfection of anything would be to deny the sacredness of all life in its full manifestation, as well as to deny the Supreme Being.
Aghoris believe that every person's soul is Shiva, but is covered by aṣṭamahāpāśa "eight great nooses or bonds", including sensual pleasure, anger, greed, obsession, fear and hatred. The practices of the Aghoris are centered around the removal of these bonds. Sādhanā in cremation grounds is used in an attempt to destroy fear sexual practices with certain riders and controls attempt to release one from sexual desire being naked is used in an attempt to destroy shame. On release from all the eight bonds, the soul becomes sadāśiva and obtains moksha.  [ better source needed ]
Although akin to the Kapalika ascetics of medieval Kashmir, as well as the Kalamukhas, with whom there may be a historical connection, the Aghoris trace their origin to Baba Keenaram, an ascetic who is said to have lived 150 years, dying during the second half of the 18th century.  Dattatreya the avadhuta, to whom has been attributed the esteemed nondual medieval song, the Avadhuta Gita, was a founding adi guru of the Aghor tradition according to Barrett (2008: p. 33):
Lord Dattatreya, an antinomian form of Shiva closely associated with the cremation ground, who appeared to Baba Keenaram atop Girnar Mountain in Gujarat. Considered to be the adi guru (ancient spiritual teacher) and founding deity of Aghor, Lord Dattatreya offered his own flesh to the young ascetic as prasād (a kind of blessing), conferring upon him the power of clairvoyance and establishing a guru-disciple relationship between them. 
Aghoris also hold sacred the Hindu deity Dattatreya as a predecessor to the Aghori Tantric tradition. Dattatreya was believed to be an incarnation of Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva united in the same singular physical body. Dattatreya is revered in all schools of Tantra, which is the philosophy followed by the Aghora tradition, and he is often depicted in Hindu artwork and its holy scriptures of folk narratives, the Puranas, indulging in Aghori "left-hand" Tantric worship as his prime practice.
An aghori believes in getting into total darkness by all means, and then getting into light or self realizing. Though this is a different approach from other Hindu sects, they believe it to be effective. They are infamously known for their rituals that include such as shava samskara or shava sadhana (ritual worship incorporating the use of a corpse as the altar) to invoke the mother goddess in her form as Smashan Tara (Tara of the Cremation Grounds).
In Hindu iconography, Tara, like Kali, is one of the ten Mahavidyas (wisdom goddesses) and once invoked can bless the Aghori with supernatural powers. The most popular of the ten Mahavidyas who are worshiped by Aghoris are Dhumavati, Bagalamukhi, and Bhairavi. The male Hindu deities primarily worshiped by Aghoris for supernatural powers are manifestations of Shiva, including Mahākāla, Bhairava, Virabhadra, Avadhuti, and others.
Barrett (2008: p. 161) discusses the "charnel ground sādhanā" of the Aghora in both its left and right-handed proclivities and identifies it as principally cutting through attachments and aversion and foregrounding primordiality a view uncultured, undomesticated: 
The gurus and disciples of Aghor believe their state to be primordial and universal. They believe that all human beings are natural-born Aghori. Hari Baba has said on several occasions that human babies of all societies are without discrimination, that they will play as much in their own filth as with the toys around them. Children become progressively discriminating as they grow older and learn the culturally specific attachments and aversions of their parents. Children become increasingly aware of their mortality as they bump their heads and fall to the ground. They come to fear their mortality and then palliate this fear by finding ways to deny it altogether.
In this sense, the Aghora sādhanā is a process of unlearning deeply internalized cultural models. When this sādhanā takes the form of charnel ground sādhanā, the Aghori faces death as a very young child, simultaneously meditating on the totality of life at its two extremes. This ideal example serves as a prototype for other Aghor practices, both left and right, in ritual and in daily life." 
Though Aghoris are prevalent in cremation grounds across India, Nepal, and even sparsely across cremation grounds in South East Asia, the secrecy of this religious sect leaves no desire for practitioners to aspire for social recognition and notoriety. 
Hinglaj Mata is the Kuladevata (patron goddess) of the Aghori. The main Aghori pilgrimage centre is Kina Ram's hermitage or ashram in Ravindrapuri, Varanasi. The full name of this place is Baba Keenaram Sthal, Krim-Kund. Here, Kina Ram is buried in a tomb or samadhi which is a centre of pilgrimage for Aghoris and Aghori devotees. Present head (Abbot), since 1978, of Baba Keenaram Sthal is Baba Siddharth Gautam Ram.
According to Devotees, Baba Siddharth Gautam Ram is reincarnation of Baba Keenaram himself. Apart from this, any cremation ground would be a holy place for an Aghori ascetic. The cremation grounds near the yoni pithas, 51 holy centres for worship of the Hindu Mother Goddess scattered across South Asia and the Himalayan terrain, are key locations preferred for performing sadhana by the Aghoris. They are also known to meditate and perform sadhana in haunted houses.
Aghori practice healing through purification as a pillar of their ritual. Their patients believe the Aghoris are able to transfer health to, and pollution away from patients as a form of "transformative healing", due to the believed superior state of body and mind of the Aghori. 
Historical Events In 1167
Jan 12 In the year 1167 aelred of Hexham/Rievaulx, English abbot/saint, dies at about 56
Feb 27 Robert of Melun, English philosopher/bishop of Hereford, dies in the year 1167.
Mar 18 In the year 1167 battle of El-Babein, Egypt Franks under Amalrik vs Syrians
Mar 18 Battle of El-Babein, Egypt: Franks under Amalrik vs Syrians in the year 1167.
May 29 On this day in history lombard League defeat Frederick Barbarossa at Battle of Legnano
Aug 14 In the year 1167 raynald van Dassel, archbishop of Cologne, dies
Dec 01 On this day in history northern Italian towns form Lombardi League
Dec 15 In the year 1167 sicilian chancellor Stephen du Perche moves the royal court to Messina to prevent a rebellion.
Dec 24 On this day in history john "without a land", king of England (1199-1216)
Dec 24 The birth of John I, King of England, responsible for signing the Magna Carta on this day in history.
According to the Puranas, Kurukshetra is a region named after King Kuru, the ancestor of Kauravas and Pandavas in the Kuru kingdom, as depicted in epic Mahabharata. The Kurukshetra War of the Mahabharata is believed to have taken place here. Thaneswar whose urban area is merged with Kurukshetra is a pilgrimage site with many locations attributed to Mahabharata. 
In the Vedas Kurukshetra is described not as a city but as a region ("kshetra" means "region" in Sanskrit). The boundaries of Kurukshetra correspond roughly to the central and western parts of the state of Haryana and southern Punjab. According to the Taittiriya Aranyaka 5.1.1., the Kurukshetra region is south of Turghna (Srughna/Sugh in Sirhind, Punjab), north of Khandava (Delhi and Mewat region), east of Maru (desert), and west of Parin. 
According to the Vamana Purana, King Kuru chose land at the banks of the Sarasvati River for embedding spirituality with eight virtues: austerity (Tapas), truth (Satya), forgiveness (Kshama), kindness (Daya), purity (Shuddha), charity (Daana), devotion (Yajna), and conduct (Brahmacharya). Lord Vishnu was impressed with the acts of King Kuru and blessed him with two boons—first, that this land forever will be known as a Holy Land after his name as Kurukshetra (the land of Kuru) second that anyone dying on this land will go to heaven.
The land of Kurukshetra was situated between two rivers—the Sarasvati and the Drishadvati.
Kurukshetra reached the zenith of its progress during the reign of King Harsha, during which Chinese scholar Xuanzang visited Thanesar.
Kurukshetra was conquered by the Mauryan empire in the late 4th century BCE and subsequently became a center of Buddhism and Hinduism. The history of Kurukshetra is little-known in between the collapse of the Mauryans and the rise of the Kushans who conquered the region. After the decline of Kushan power in the region, Kurukshetra became independent only to become conquered by the Gupta empire in the early 4th century CE. Under Gupta rule, Kurukshetra experienced a cultural and religious revival and became a center for Hinduism. After the fall of the Gupta, the Pushyabhuti dynasty ruled over Kurukshetra. 
Civil war broke out when Harsha (of the Pushyabhuti dynasty) died without a successor in 647. A Kashmiri army briefly conquered Kurukshetra in 733 but were unable to establish dominion in the area. In 736, the Tomara dynasty was founded and they took over the region. Around the early 9th century, Kurukshetra lost its independence to Bengal. Mahmud of Ghazni sacked Kurukshetra in 1014 and Muslim raiders sacked it in 1034. Kurukshetra was incorporated into the Delhi Sultanate in 1206. Other than a short moment of independence from the result of a rebellion within the Sultanate in 1240, Kurukshetra was under the control of Delhi until 1388. 
Kurukshetra became independent once again after the steep decline of the Delhi Sultanate and the raids of Tamerlane near the region. The Sayyid dynasty incorporated Kurukshetra into their territory though the city likely enjoyed some autonomy. The area was much more firmly controlled under the subsequent Lodi dynasty. Some damages to Kurukshetra and its structures occurred during this period. Kurukshetra became part of the Mughal Empire after Babur quashed a local rebellion in 1526. Under Akbar, Kurukshetra once again became a spiritual center not only for Hindus but also for Sikhs and Muslims. 
Between the late 17th and early 18th centuries, Kurukshetra was controlled by the forces of the Maratha Empire until the British took over Delhi in 1803. In 1805, the British took Kurukshetra after defeating the Maratha forces in the Second Anglo-Maratha War, who were controlling the city. Since 1947, Kurukshetra has become a popular spiritual center and has seen much infrastructure, development, and restoration of old structures. 
It is generally believed that Hungary came into existence when the Magyars, a Finno-Ugric people, began occupying the middle basin of the Danube River in the late 9th century. According to the “double-conquest” theory of archaeologist Gyula László, however,…
…speech and the withdrawal of Hungary from the Warsaw Pact. While Hungary’s fate hung in the balance, the Western powers had their attention diverted by a second Middle Eastern war.
…the Ausgleich (“Compromise”) of 1867, Hungary was granted substantial autonomy, and separate parliaments, though based on limited suffrage, were established in Austria and Hungary. This result enraged Slavic nationalists, but it signaled an important departure from previous policies bent on holding the line against any dilution of imperial power.
…originated as the Party of National Will founded by Ferenc Szálasi in 1935. Szálasi’s party was quite small and underwent numerous reorganizations it reconstituted itself under a new name and emerged early in 1939 as the Arrow Cross Party. In the May 1939 national elections it became the second most…
…of 1867 between Austria and Hungary until the empire’s collapse in 1918.
…facilitated the solution of the Hungarian crisis. Friedrich Ferdinand, Freiherr (baron) von Beust (later Graf [count] von Beust), who had been prime minister of Saxony, took charge of Habsburg affairs, first as foreign minister (from October 1866) and then as chancellor (from February 1867). By abandoning the claim that Hungary…
…to become part of the Hungarian monarchy. In the 14th century there was a short-lived Bosnian kingdom under the Kotromanić dynasty, but it also joined Hungary—even though Bosnia was less Catholic in its composition because many Bogomil heretics had taken refuge there.
In Hungary the 1944 coalition included only two communist ministers, and in the 1945 election the moderate-liberal Smallholders’ Party led the poll. The communists threatened to quit the government, leaving it as a minority, unless they were given the Ministry of the Interior. They organized demonstrations…
>Hungary and Bulgaria (where a reported 20,000 people were liquidated), and the Red Army extended an invitation to “consult” with 16 underground Polish leaders only to arrest them when they surfaced. As Stalin said to the Yugoslav Communist Milovan Djilas: “In this war each side…
…(1514), unsuccessful peasant revolt in Hungary, led by nobleman György Dózsa (1470–1514), that resulted in a reduction of the peasants’ social and economic position.
Lithuania, Bohemia, and Hungary were all loosely associated at the close of the 15th century under rulers of the Jagiellon dynasty. In 1569, three years before the death of the last Jagiellon king of Lithuania-Poland, these two countries merged their separate institutions by the Union of Lublin. Thereafter…
…by King Andrew II of Hungary, which stated the basic rights and privileges of the Hungarian nobility and clergymen and the limits of the monarch’s powers. The Hungarian nobles, aroused by Andrew’s excesses and extravagances, forced him to promulgate the Golden Bull. It contained 31 articles, reaffirming previously granted rights…
…intense and sudden than in Hungary. What took place over several years in Germany occurred over 16 weeks in Hungary. Entering the war as a German ally, Hungary had persecuted its Jews but not permitted the deportation of Hungarian citizens. In 1941 foreign Jewish refugees were deported from Hungary and…
…elective kingdoms of Bohemia and Hungary, as well as Austria, the Tyrol, and Alsace, with about 8,000,000 inhabitants next came electoral Saxony, Brandenburg, and Bavaria, with more than 1,000,000 subjects each and then the Palatinate, Hesse,
…came from Pannonia (modern western Hungary), which had itself been a Roman province. Exactly how Romanized they were is a matter of dispute, but they certainly did not have the political coherence of the Ostrogoths, and they never conquered the whole of Italy. Alboin took the north but was soon…
…was unlucky in 899 the Hungarians invaded Italy, destroying Berengar’s army and initiating a series of raids that were to last, off and on, until the 950s.
On May 2, Hungary dismantled barriers on its border with Austria—the first real breach in the Iron Curtain.
Hungary became the second (after Poland) to seize its independence when the National Assembly, on October 18, amended its constitution to abolish the Socialist party’s “leading role” in society, legalize non-Communist political parties, and change the name of the country from the “People’s Republic” to…
…tribes, conquered what is now Hungary. In this way, the largest, but at the same time linguistically the most isolated, Finno-Ugric nation came into existence. Other Magyars live in Romania and Slovakia.
…status as a territory of Hungary until the end of World War I. When the Ausgleich, or Compromise, of 1867 created the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy, Croatia, which was part of the Habsburg empire, was merged with Slavonia and placed under Hungarian jurisdiction. Although many Croats who sought full autonomy for…
…Imre Nagy took power in Hungary and instituted reforms that constituted a marked retreat from socialism. His National Communist program returned retail trade and craft industries to private enterprise, made possible the dissolution of collective farms, de-emphasized industrial investments while increasing agricultural investments, and instituted an official policy of religious…
the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland (1999) Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania,
Hungary returned northern Transylvania to Romania. Italy ceded the Dodecanese islands to Greece and surrendered its overseas colonies, although a Soviet demand for a trusteeship over Libya was denied. Trieste was contested by Italy and Yugoslavia and remained under Western occupation until 1954. The major…
In Hungary, the Turkish victory at the Battle of Mohács in 1526 brought about a division of the land into three sections, with the northwest ruled by the Habsburg Ferdinand, the eastern province of Transylvania under Zápolya, and the area of Buda under the Turks. Even…
Held in Melbourne, Australia, in 1956, the 16th Olympiad coincided with one of the signal events of Cold War history: the Soviet army’s repression of an uprising in Hungary against the pro-Soviet government there. Thousands of Hungarians were killed during the incident, and in the…
…while King Béla IV of Hungary received Steiermark. Troubles in Salzburg, stemming from a conflict between Bohemia and Hungary, inspired a rising among Steiermark’s nobles. Otakar intervened and in the Treaty of Vienna (1260) took over Steiermark as well. The state of anarchy that prevailed in Germany during this period…
…the Treaty of Carlowitz (1699) Hungary, Transylvania, and large parts of Slavonia (now in Croatia) fell to the Habsburg emperor. Meanwhile, the war in the west, overshadowed already by the question of the Spanish succession, had come to an end with the Treaty of Rijswijk (1697).
In 1784 he informed the Hungarian government that its official language, Latin, was not effective for modern government and, since Hungarian was spoken by only part of the population of that kingdom, that the language of government from then on would be German. That language would be used in the…
…or more serious than in Hungary. Joseph II’s effort to incorporate Hungary more fully into the monarchy, along with the early 19th century’s rising national awareness throughout Europe, had a profound impact upon the aristocratic Hungarians who held sway in the country. Modern nationalism made them even more intent on…
They included Hungary, Romania, and Slovakia (after Czechoslovakia had divided in 1939) in November 1940, Bulgaria and Yugoslavia in March 1941, and, after the wartime breakup of Yugoslavia, Croatia (June 1941).
…Montenegro and Herzegovina, rule by Hungary, and a brief period of renewed Byzantine rule. After the death of the emperor Manuel I Comnenus in 1180, Byzantine rule fell away, and government by Croatia or Hungary was not restored: a Bosnian territory (excluding much of modern Bosnia and all of Herzegovina)…
…with the new kingdom of Hungary, to whose ruler he was related by marriage. Alexius I had seen the importance of Hungary, lying between the Western and Byzantine empires, a neighbour of the Venetians and the Serbs. More ominous still was the establishment of the Norman kingdom of Sicily under…
…even under dynastic union with Hungary, institutions of separate Croatian statehood were maintained through the Sabor (an assembly of Croatian nobles) and the ban (viceroy). In addition, the Croatian nobles retained their lands and titles.
…to break relations with Austria-Hungary and declared the unification of the lands of Croatia, Dalmatia, and Slavonia in an independent Croatian state. Soon, however, the Sabor announced the incorporation of Croatia into a South Slav state and transferred its power to the newly created National Council of Slovenes, Croats,…
…of the lands of the Hungarian crown.
2, 1938), Hungary was granted one-quarter of Slovak and Ruthenian territories. By all these amputations Czechoslovakia lost about one-third of its population, and the country was rendered defenseless.
…Kun’s Communist coup d’état in Hungary on March 21. Kun immediately invaded Czechoslovakia and appealed to Lenin for help (which the Bolsheviks were in no condition to provide). On April 10 a Romanian army attacked Hungary, and successive Red and White terrors ensued. The episodes ended on May 1, when…
…by the Communist coup in Hungary, partitioned that ancient kingdom among its neighbours. Transylvania, including its minority of 1,300,000 Magyars, passed to Romania. The Banat of Temesvár (Timişoara) was divided between Romania and Yugoslavia, Sub-Carpathian Ruthenia passed to Czechoslovakia, and Croatia to Yugoslavia. All told, Hungary’s territory shrank from 109,000…
…1920 the French even courted Hungary and toyed with the idea of resurrecting a Danubian Confederation, but when the deposed Habsburg King Charles appeared in Hungary in March 1921, Allied protests and a Czech ultimatum forced him back into exile. Hungarian revisionism, however, motivated Beneš to unite those states that…
…broke the impetus of the Hungarian (Magyar) invasions, against which the military resources and methods of western European society had almost wholly failed for several decades. In 933, after long preparations, Henry routed a Hungarian attack on Saxony and Thuringia. In 955 Otto I (Otto the Great reigned 936–973), at…
…by a Mongol invasion of Hungary in 1241–42. Although victorious against the forces of King Béla IV, the Mongols evacuated Hungary and withdrew to southern and central Russia. Ruled by Batu (d. c. 1255), the Mongols of eastern Europe (the so-called Golden Horde) became a major factor in that region…
…alliance with Louis I of Hungary and Tsar Shishman of Bulgaria in the first European Crusade against the Ottomans. The Byzantine emperor John V Palaeologus tried to mobilize European assistance by uniting the churches of Constantinople and Rome, but that effort only further divided Byzantium without assuring any concrete
…of those languages, extending from Hungary eastward to the Pacific Ocean.
…with the new king of Hungary, Charles I, Władysław withstood the enmity of Bohemia, the Teutonic Knights, rival Polish dukes, and the mainly German patriciate of Kraków. At one point the struggle assumed the character of a Polish-German national conflict.
…ultimate goal of liberation of Hungary, which was not necessarily a Polish concern.
…Transylvania, a part of the Hungarian kingdom. To the south a number of small voivodates coalesced by 1330 into the independent Romanian principality of Walachia, and to the east a second principality, Moldavia, achieved independence in 1359.
links with Poland and Hungary. The princes of these areas still contested the crown of the “grand prince of Kiev and all of Rus,” but the title became an empty one when Andrew Bogolyubsky (Andrew I) of Suzdal won Kiev and the title in 1169, he sacked the city…
…1015 Transcarpathia was absorbed by Hungary, of which it remained a part for almost a millennium. With Hungary, it came in the 16th–17th centuries under the Habsburg dynasty. After the Union of Uzhhorod in 1646, on terms similar to the Union of Brest-Litovsk, the Uniate church became dominant in the…
In November Hungary occupied a strip of territory including the Carpatho-Ukrainian capital of Uzhhorod, and the autonomous government transferred its seat to Khust. On March 15, 1939, the diet proclaimed the independence of Carpatho-Ukraine while the country was already in the midst of occupation by Hungarian troops.…
After forming part of Hungary in the 11th–16th centuries, it was an autonomous principality within the Ottoman Empire (16th–17th century) and then once again became part of Hungary at the end of the 17th century. It was incorporated into Romania in the first half of the 20th century. The…
with Poland and Hungary, as well as Byzantium—brought considerable prosperity and culture flourished, with marked new influences from the West. In 1253 Danylo (in a bid for aid from the West) even accepted the royal crown from Pope Innocent IV and recognized him as head of the church,…
…and briefly titular king of Hungary (August 1620 to December 1621), in opposition to the Catholic emperor Ferdinand II.
…Austria (1848–1916) and king of Hungary (1867–1916), who divided his empire into the Dual Monarchy, in which Austria and Hungary coexisted as equal partners. In 1879 he formed an alliance with Prussian-led Germany, and in 1914 his ultimatum to Serbia led Austria and Germany into World War I.
…power in East Germany, Poland, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia in late 1989–90, Gorbachev agreed to the phased withdrawal of Soviet troops from those countries. By the summer of 1990 he had agreed to the reunification of East with West Germany and even assented to the prospect of that reunified nation’s becoming…
…like the Bohemian and the Hungarian, elective. If Habsburg was to succeed Habsburg as emperor continuously from Frederick’s death in 1493 to Charles VI’s accession in 1711, the principal reason was that the hereditary lands of the Habsburgs formed an aggregate large enough and rich enough to enable the dynasty…
…Ottoman Turks in defense of Hungary, his leadership was only nominal. The actual conduct of the expedition, which ended in the disastrous defeat of the crusaders on the battlefield of Nicopolis and the capture of John by the Turks (an adventure that earned him the epithet the Fearless), was entrusted…
…in the Austrian Netherlands and Hungary grew in the belief that preoccupation with the war would prevent the Emperor from taking on the revolutionaries as well. Joseph spent several months with his army but both his illness and the domestic crisis made progress dangerous, and he had to return to…
…March 20, 1955, Vence, France), Hungarian statesman who before World War I desired a reorientation of Austro-Hungarian foreign policy toward friendship with states other than Germany. He also advocated concessions to Hungary’s non-Magyar subjects. After the war, as president of the Hungarian Democratic Republic in 1919, Károlyi was nevertheless unable…
… (1699), almost the whole of Hungary was freed from Turkish rule.
…dealings with the Serbs and Hungarians. In 1167 Dalmatia, Croatia, and Bosnia were incorporated into the empire. Interfering in Hungarian dynastic struggles, he was rewarded when his candidate, Béla, was elected king in 1173. Elsewhere in the north his relations were not as successful. Relations between Venice and Constantinople were…
…mainly in southern and eastern Hungary. Some important sectors of the economy, such as textiles and iron making, were freed from guild restrictions. And in 1775 the government created a customs union out of most of the crown lands of the monarchy, excluding some of the peripheral lands and the…
…broke the military strength of Hungary, the Hungarian king, Louis II, losing his life in the battle (see Battle of Mohács).
…first European enterprise started in Hungary in 1211, when King Andrew II invited a group of the Teutonic Knights to protect his Transylvanian borderland against the Cumans by colonizing it and by converting its people to Christianity. The order was then granted extensive rights of autonomy but the knights’ demands…
…an attempt to save Austria-Hungary from collapse, World War I was transformed into a world conflict by Germany. William, having encouraged the Austrians to adopt an uncompromising line, took fright when he found war impending but was not able to halt the implementation of the mobilization measures that he…
… and signed by representatives of Hungary on one side and the Allied Powers on the other. It was signed on June 4, 1920, at the Trianon Palace at Versailles, France.
East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania. (Albania withdrew in 1968, and East Germany did so in 1990.) The treaty (which was renewed on April 26, 1985) provided for a unified military command and for the maintenance of Soviet military units on the territories of the other participating…
…overthrow the Habsburg dynasty in Hungary its efforts resulted in the establishment of an absolutist, repressive regime in Hungary.
…Soviet and Romanian troops invaded Hungary in October, Horthy tried to extract his country from the war. But the SS arranged his overthrow, and fighting continued until the fall of Budapest on February 13, 1945. A foolish waste of troops for the Nazis, the battle of Budapest was equally irrational…
…German influence across Slovakia and Hungary into Romania, the oil fields of which he was anxious to secure against Soviet attack and the military manpower of which might be joined to the forces of the German coalition. In May 1940 he obtained an oil and arms pact from Romania but,…
German troops occupied Hungary on March 20, since Hitler suspected that the Hungarian regent, Admiral Miklós Horthy, might not resist the Red Army to the utmost.
After the death of Shah Jahan, the attitude of the state headed by Aurangzeb towards the non-muslims, turned hostile. Emperor Aurangzeb made an excuse for the help rendered to prince Dara Shakoh by Guru Sahib during the war of succession and framed false charges against Guru Sahib who was summoned to Delhi. Baba Ram Rai Ji appeard on behalf of Guru Sahib in the court. He tried to clarify some mis-understandings regarding Guru Ghar and Sikh faith, created by Dhirmals and Minas. Yet another trap, which he could not escape, was to clarify the meaning of the verse "The Ashes of the Mohammadan fall into the potter's clot, it is moulded into pots and bricks, and they cry out as they burn". Baba Ram Rai in order to please the emperor and gain his sympathy distorted Gurbani. When Guru Har Rai Ji was informed about this incident, he immediately excommunicated Ram Rai Ji from the Sikh Panth and never met him, through the later pleaded repeatedly for forgiveness. Thus Guru Sahib established a strict property for the Sikhs against any alteration of original verse in Guru Granth Sahib and the basic conventions set up by Guru Nanak Sahib.