DEATH OF MONTEZUMA from The True History of the Conquest of New Spain, by Bernal Dxaz del Castillo, 1517-21 - History

DEATH OF MONTEZUMA from The True History of the Conquest of New Spain, by Bernal Dxaz del Castillo, 1517-21 - History

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Let us go back to our story. It was decided to sue for peace so that we could leave Mexico, and as soon as it was dawn many more squadrons of Mexicans arrived and very effectually surrounded our quarters on all sides, and if they had discharged many stones and arrows before, they came much thicker and with louder howls and whistles on this day, and other squadrons endeavored to force an entrance in other parts, and cannon and muskets availed nothing, although we did them damage enough.

When Cortxs saw all this, he decided that the great Montezuma should speak to them from the roof and tell them that the war must cease, and that we wished to leave his city. When they went to give this message from Cortxs to the great Montezuma, it is reported that he said with great grief: "What more does Malinche want from me? I neither wish to live nor to listen to him, to such a pass has my fate brought me because of him." And he did not wish to come, and it is even reported that he said he neither wished to see nor hear him, nor listen to his false words, promises or lies. Then the Padre de la Merced and Cristxbal de Olid went and spoke to him with much reverence and in very affectionate terms, and Montezuma said: "I believe that I shall not obtain any result toward ending this war, for they have already raised up another lord and have made up their minds not to let you leave this place alive, therefore I believe that all of you will have to die."

Let us return to the attack they made on us. Montezuma was placed by a battlement of the roof with many of us soldiers guarding him, and he began to speak to his people with very affectionate expressions telling them to desist from the war, and that we would leave Mexico. Manv of the Mexican chieftains and captains knew him well and at once ordered their people to be silent and not to discharge darts, stones or arrows, and four of them reached a spot where Montezuma could speak to them, and they to him, and with tears they said to him: "Oh! Sexor, and our great Lord, how all your misfortune and injury and that of your children and relations afflicts us; we make known to you that we have already raised one of your kinsmen to be our Lord"; and there he stated his name, that he was called Cuitlahuac, the Lord of Ixtapalapa, and moreover they said that the war must be carried through, and that they had vowed to their idols not to relax it until we were all dead...

They had hardly finished this speech when suddenly such a shower of stones and darts were discharged that (our men who were shielding him having neglected for a moment their duty, because they saw how the attack ceased while he spoke to them) he was hit by three stones, one on the head, another on the arm and another on the leg, and although they begged him to have the wounds dressed and to take food, and spoke kind words to him about it, he would not. Indeed, when we least expected it, they came to say that he was dead. Cortxs wept for him, and all of us captains and soldiers, and there was no man among us who knew him and was intimate with him, who did not bemoan him as though he were our father, and it is not to be wondered at, consxdering how good he was. It was stated that he had reigned for seventeen years and that he was the best king there had ever been in Mexico, and that he had conquered in person, in three wars which he had carried on in the countries he had subjugated.


This volume of primary sources focuses on the history of emotions in Europe and its empires between 1517 and 1602. The Reformation in 1517 was a key transformative moment in European history that required people to rethink the self, belief, and scientific knowledges – all of which shaped and were shaped by emotion. The study examines the subjects of the self, family and community, religion, politics and law, science and philosophy, and art and culture.

Sources include letters, diaries, legal papers, institutional records, newspapers, science and philosophical writings, literature and art from a diversity of voices and perspectives. Accompanied by extensive editorial commentary, this collection will be of great interest to students of history and literature.

Table of Contents

1. Excerpts from the Spiritual Diary of Saint Ignatius de Loyola (1491-1556), in Saint Ignatius of Loyola, Personal Writings , trans. and ed. Joseph A. Munitiz and Philip Endean (London: Penguin, 1996), pp. 73-5 (2 February-10 February 1544) and 89-91 (2 March – 4 March 1544)

2. Gerolamo Cardano (1501-1576), De Vita propria , 1576, trans. and ed. Jean Stoner (New York: E. P. Dutton & co., 1930), pp. 280-4

3. Excerpt from the Autobiography of Saint Teresa of Ávila (1515-1582), trans. and ed. E. Allison Peers

4. Selected excerpts from the Diary of the Puritan Richard Rogers (1550?-1618) (April 1588-November 1589), in Two Elizabethan Puritan Diaries , by Richard Rogers and Samuel Ward, ed. M. M. Knappen (Chicago: The American Society of Church History, c1933), pp. 77-93

5 . Excerpts from the Memoirs of Marguerite de Valois (1553-1615)
(Boston: L.C. Page, 1899)

6. Thomas Platter (1499-1582), The Autobiography of Thomas Platter, a Schoolmaster of the Sixteenth Century , tran. Elizabeth Anne Finn (London: B. Wertheim, Aldine Chambers, 1847) ( Vie de Thomas Platter, 1499-1582 suivie d'extraits des meìmoires de Feìlix Platter, 1536-1614 (Geneva: Fick, 1862)), pp. 87-88

7. Thomas Wyatt (1503-1542), The Poetical Works of Sir Thomas Wyatt (Boston: Houghton, Mifflin and Co., 1880), pp. 3, 17-8 and 29

8. Love and Melancholic poems of Joachim du Bellay (1522-1560)

Part 2. Family and Community

9. Excerpts from the Registers of the Consistory of Geneva in the Time of Calvin, Volume I: 1542-1544 , ed. Robert M. Kingdon, Thomas A. Lambert and Isabella M. Watt trans. by M. Wallace McDonald (Grand Rapids Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1996), pp. 52-4 280-1 and 282-4

10. Letters of Catherine de Medici (1519-1589)

11. Letters of Philip II (1556-1598) to his daughter Catalina, Duchess of Savoy (1567-1597), 10 and 27 April 1586, Cartas de Felipe II a sus hijas , ed. Fernando Bouza (Madrid: Ediciones Akal, 1998), pp. 137-140

12. Pierre de L’Estoile (1546-1611), Registre-Journal du règne de Henri III , eds Madeleine Lazard and Gilbert Schrenck, 6 vols (Genève: Droz, 1992), vol. 1, p. 64

13. Jean Bodin (c.1529/1530-1596), Six Books of the Commonwealth by Jean Bodin , abr. and trans. M. J. Tooley (Oxford: (Basil Blackwell, 1955), pp. 96-9

14. Fray Luis de León (1527-1591), La Perfecta Casada (Salamanca: En casa de Iuan Fernandez 1583), chapters XV and XVI

15. Franz Hogenberg (1535-1590), Stump Petter (Cologne, 1589)

16. Forged letters of the Jews of Spain and Constantinople, in Julián de Medrano, La Silva Curiosa (Paris: Marc Orry, 1608), pp. 156-7

17. Martin Luther (1483-1546), A Treatise on Good Works (1520) , in Works of Martin Luther , ed. Henry Eyster Jacobs and Adolph Spaeth (Philadelphia: A.J. Holman, 1915), vol. 1, pp. 184-285

18. Katharina Schutz Zell (1497/8-1562), Letter to the Suffering Women of the community of Kentzingen, who believe in Christ, Sisters with me in Jesus Christ (1524), in Church Mother: The Writings of a Protestant Reformer in Sixteenth-Century Germany , ed. and trans. Elsie Mcknee (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006), pp. 50-56

19. Philip Melanchthon (1497-1560), Apology of the [Augsburg] Confession‎. Article IV: Of Love and the Fulfillment of the Law (1530)

20. Erasmus (1469-1536), Ecclesiastes: On the Art of Preaching (1535), Book III, pp. 766-7 and 798-806, in Spiritualia and Pastoralia: Exomologesis and Ecclesiastes , ed. Frederick J. McGinness et al (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2015)

21. John Calvin (1509-1564), The Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536) , trans. Henry Beveridge (Edinburgh: Calvin Translation Society, 1846), Book I, chapter 3

22. Martin Luther (1483-1546), Melancholy from Luther’s Table Talk , in Luther’s Table Talk , extracts selected by Dr Macaulay (London: The Religious Tract Society, n.d.), pp. 87-90, 100-1 and 106

23. Ignacio de Loyola (1491-1556), Spiritual Exercises (1548), in The Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius: A New Translation Based on Studies in the Language of the Autograph, trans. Louis J. Puhl (United States: Newman Press, 1951), pp. 141-150

24. John Foxe (1516/17-1587), Book of Martyrs/Acts and Monuments (1563) (Chicago : John C . Winston Co ., 1926), pp. 212-4

25. Teresa of Ávila (1515-1582), The Interior Castle (London: Thomas Baker, 1921), chapter II.

26. Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (1469-1527), The Prince ( 1513/1532), trans. W.K. Marriott (London: E.P. Dutton & Company, 1908), chapters 17 and 19.

27. Bartolomé de las Casas (1484-1566), The Tears of the Indians being an Historical and True Account of the Cruel Massacres and Slaughters of above Twenty Millions of Innocent People committed by the Spaniards in the islands of Hispaniola, Cuba, Jamaica, &c.: as also in the continent of Mexico, Peru, & other places of the West-Indies, to the total destruction of those countries written in Spanish by Casaus, an eye-witness of those things and made English by J.P (London: Printed by J.C. for Nath. Brook, 1656), pp. 27-32

28. Hernán Cortés (1485-1547), Letters of Cortés: Five Letters of Relation to the Emperor Charles V , tran. and ed. Francis Augustus MacNutt (New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1908), vol. I, pp. 237-8 and 251-2

29. Bernal Dίaz del Castillo (1496-1584), The Memoirs of the Conquistador Bernal Diaz del Castillo: Written by Himself Containing a True and Full Account of the Discovery and Conquest of Mexico and New Spain , trans. John Ingram Lockhart (London: J. Hatchard and Son, 1844), pp. 101-3 and 271-2

30. Charles V (1500-1588), Abdication speech and ceremony of Emperor Charles V, 1555 , in Prudencio de Sandoval, Historia de la vida y hechos del emperador Carlos V. máximo (Antwerp: Geronymo Verdvssen, 1681), vol. 2, pp. 597-9

31. Justus Lipsius (1547-1606), A Discourse of Constancy in Two Books Chiefly containing Consolations against Publick Evils Written in Latin by Justus Lipsius, and Translated into English by Nathaniel Wanley (London: Printed by J. Redmayne, for James Allestry, 1670), pp. 6-12

32. Pedro de Ribadeneyra (1527-1611), Ecclesiastical History of the Schism of the Kingdom of England (1595 edition), Book 1 Chapter 10 , ed. and trans. Spencer Weinreich (Leiden, E. J. Brill, 2017), pp. 161-3

33. Inquisitorial Trial of Bartholomeu Domingues, Inq. Lisbon, no. 12447 (1589) and summaries of trials in Julio Serra, Procesos en la Inquisición de Toledo (1575-1610): manuscrito de Halle (Madrid: Editorial Trotta, 2005), pp. 260, 318, 401-2 and 423

34. Petitions made to the Quarter Sessions in England

Part 5. Science and Philosophy

35. Selected excerpts from Juan Luis Vives (1493-1540), de Anima et Vita (Basel: in officina Roberti VVinter, 1538), Book III

36. Ambroise Paré (c.1510-1590), The Workes of that Famous Chirurgion Ambrose Parey translated out of Latine and compared with the French. by Th: Johnson (London: Printed by Th: Cotes and R. Young, 1634), pp. 39-40

37. Selected extracts from Guy Faur de Pibrac (1529-1584), Discours de l'Ire et comme il la faut modérer (1576), trans. Petris, Loris, ‘Le Magistrat Gallican Et L'Académie Du Palais: Le Discours De L'ire, & Comme Il La Faut Moderer De Guy Du Faur De Pibrac (étude et édition)’, Nouvelle Revue Du XVIe Siècle 22, no. 2 (2004), 57-82

38. Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592), ‘Of Sadness or Sorrow,’ ‘That We Laugh or Cry for the Same Thing’ and ‘Of Anger’, in Essais (London: Reeves and Turner, 1877)

39. Juan Huarte de San Juan (1529-1588), The Examination of Mens Wits. In Whicch, by Discouering the Varietie of Natures, is shewed for what Profession each one is Apt, and how far he shall Profit Therein (London: Richard Watkins, 1594), pp. 81-3

40. Timothy Bright (c.1551-1616), A Treatise of Melancholie. Containing the Causes thereof, & Reasons of the Strange Effects it Worketh in our Minds and Bodies … (London: Thomas Vautrollier, 1586), pp. 33-8, 101-110 and 135-8

41. André du Laurens (1558-1609), A Discourse of the Preseruation of the Sight: of Melancholike Diseases of Rheumes, and of Old Age , trans, Richard Surphlet (London: Ralph Iacson, 1599), pp. 84-96

42. Thomas Wright (1561-1624), The Passions of the Minde in Generall. Corrected, enlarged, and with Sundry New Discourses Augmented (London: Walter Burre, 1604), pp. 15-32

43. Leonhard Thurneyssers (1531-1595/5), ‘The Four Humoral Temperaments’, Quinta essentia (1574).

44. Albrecht Dürer (1471-1528), Head of a Weeping Cherub (1521)

45. Hans Holbein (1497-1543), the Dance of Death (1523-5)

46. Quentin Metsys (1543-1589), Christ as the Man of Sorrows (c. 1520-5)

47. Anonymous, The Magdalene Weeping (1525)

48. Lucas Cranach the Elder (1472-1553), Melancholia (1532)

49. Hélisenne de Crenne (151-1552), Les Angoisses douloureuses qui procèdent d'amours ( The Torments of Love , 1538), Book One, Chapters 14-15, trans. Lisa Neal and Rendall Steven (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996), pp. 34-41

50. François Rabelais (d.1553), Gangantua and Pantagruel (1546), in Francois Rabelais' Five Books Of The Lives, Heroic. Deeds And Sayings Of Gargantua And His Son Pantagruel , trans. Sir Thomas Urquhart (Derby: Moray Press, 1894), Book 2, chapter 2, XXI-XXII

51. Martin Luther (1483-1546), Abbildung des Bapstum (Depiction of the Papacy) (Wittenberg, 1545)

52. Various prints of massacres

53. Sofonisba Anguissola (c.1532-1625), Old Woman Studying the Alphabet with a Laughing Girl (1550s) and Asdrubale Bitten by a Crawfish (1550s)

54. El Greco (Doménikos Theotokópoulos, 1541-1614), The Tears of Saint Peter or Penitent Saint Peter (1580s-1590s)

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